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On the 4h time frame, you get a better glimpse of the Coinbase pump. Massive buying volume came in and maintaiethereum full node isned its position for several hours. The price took the previous high around the range and came back down again. Over the weekend, the market saw a decent bounce, but the price got rejected from the .382 Fibonacci level.

Here is a slightly more technical description of how mining works. The network of miners, who are scattered across the globe and not bound to each other by personal or professional ties, receives the latest batch of transaction data. They run the data through a cryptographic algorithm that generates a "hash," a string of numbers and letters that verifies the information's validity but does not reveal the information itself. (In reality, this ideal vision of decentralized mining is no longer accurate, with industrial-scale mining farms and powerful mining pools forming an oligopoly. More on that below.)huobi iosGiven the hash 000000000000000000c2c4d562265f272bd55d64f1a7c22ffeb66e15e826ca30, you cannot know what transactions the relevant block (#480504) contains. You can, however, take a bunch of data purporting to be block #480504 and make sure that it hasn't been subject to any tampering. If one number were out of place, no matter how insignificant, the data would generate a totally different hash. For example, if you were to run the Declaration of Independence through a hash calculator, you might get 839f561caa4b466c84e2b4809afe116c76a465ce5da68c3370f5c36bd3f67350. Delete the period after the words "submitted to a candid world," though, and you get 800790e4fd445ca4c5e3092f9884cdcd4cf536f735ca958b93f60f82f23f97c4. This is a completely different hash, although you've only changed one character in the original text.

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The hash technology allows the Bitcoin network to instantly check the validity of a block. It would be incredibly time-consuming to comb through the entire ledger to make sure that the person mining the most recent batch of transactions hasn't tried anything funny. Instead, the previous block's hash appears within the new block. If the most minute detail had been altered in the previous block, that hash would change. Even if the alteration was 20,000 blocks back in the chain, that block's hash would set off a cascade of new hashes and tip off the network.Generating a hash is not really work, though. The process is so quick and easy that bad actors could still spam the network and perhaps, given enough computing power, pass off fraudulent transactions a few blocks back in the chain. So the Bitcoin protocol requires proof of work.It does so by throwing miners a curveball: Their hash must be below a certain target. That's why block #480504's hash starts with a long string of zeroes. It's tiny. Because every string of data will generate one and only one hash, the quest for a sufficiently small one involves adding nonces ("numbers used once") to the end of the data. So a miner will run [thedata]. If the hash is too big, she will try again. [thedata]1. Still too big. [thedata]2. Finally, [thedata]93452 yields her a hash beginning with the requisite number of zeroes.The mined block will be broadcast to the network to receive confirmations, which take another hour or so, though occasionally much longer, to process. (Again, this description is simplified. Blocks are not hashed in their entirety but broken up into more efficient structures called Merkle trees.)Depending on the kind of traffic the network is receiving, Bitcoin's protocol will require a longer or shorter string of zeroes, adjusting the difficulty to hit a rate of one new block every 10 minutes. As of October 2019, the current difficulty is around 6.379 trillion, up from 1 in 2009. As this suggests, it has become significantly more difficult to mine Bitcoin since the cryptocurrency launched a decade ago.

Mining is intensive, requiring big, expensive rigs and a lot of electricity to power them. And it's competitive. There's no telling what nonce will work, so the goal is to plow through them as quickly as possible.Early on, miners recognized that they could improve their chances of success by combining into mining pools, sharing computing power, and divvying the rewards up among themselves. Even when multiple miners split these rewards, there is still ample incentive to pursue them. Every time a new block is mined, the successful miner receives a bunch of newly created bitcoins. At first, it was 50, but then it halved to 25, and now it is 12.5 (about $119,000 in October 2019).In addition to transaction fees and funds transfer fees, traders may also be subject to currency conversion fees, depending on the currencies that are accepted by the bitcoin exchange. If a user transfers Canadian dollars to an exchange that only deals in U.S. dollars, the bank or the exchange will convert the CAD to USD for a fee. Transacting with an exchange that accepts your local currency is the best way to avoid the FX fee.

All bitcoin exchanges have transaction fees that are applied to each completed buy and sell order carried out within the exchange. The fee rate is dependent on the volume of bitcoin transactions that is conducted.Foreign exchange spreads are important measures when transacting in bitcoin and vary depending on how liquid the bitcoin exchange is.Bitcoin WalletsNote that a bitcoin exchange is different from a bitcoin wallet. While the former offers a platform through which bitcoin buyers and sellers can transact with each other, the latter is simply a digital storage service for bitcoin holders to store their coins securely. To be more technical, bitcoin wallets store private keys which are used to authorize transactions and access the bitcoin address of a user. Most bitcoin exchanges provide bitcoin wallets for their users, but may charge a fee for this service.

Makers and TakersOnline bitcoin marketplaces usually designate bitcoin participants as either makers or takers. When a buyer or seller places a limit order, the exchange adds it to its order book until the price is matched by another trader on the opposite end of the transaction. When the price is matched, the buyer or seller who set the limit price is referred to as a maker. A taker is a trader who places a market order that immediately gets filled.

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Example of a Bitcoin ExchangeFor example, on a bitcoin exchange, three coin sellers are asking for BTC/USD 2265.75, BTC/USD 2269.55, and BTC/USD 2270.00. A trader who initiates a market order to buy bitcoins will have their order filled at the best ask price of 2265.75. If only five bitcoins are available for the best ask and 10 coins are available for 2269.55, and the trader wants to buy 10 at market price, the trader's order will be filled with 5 coins @ 2265.75 and the remaining 5 @ 2269.55.However, a trader who thinks they can get bitcoins for a better price could set a limit order for, say, 2260.10. If a seller matches their ask price with this order or sets a price below this figure, the order will get filled. All of this is done by the exchange, which takes a percentage of each transaction for their business.Bengaluru | Mumbai: Andreessen Horowitz is in talks to invest in CoinSwitch Kuber, a cryptocurrency platform for retail traders, people familiar with the matter said. If the deal goes through it will be the first bet by a16z—as the Silicon Valley venture capital firm is popularly known—in an Indian startup, sources told ET.

“The deal is likely to be completed soon and could be made official later this month,” one of the people cited above said.The capital infusion from a16z will be part of CoinSwitch Kuber’s new funding round, which will push its valuation to just under $2 billion, the sources said, making it a unicorn—startups with a valuation of $1 billion or more. Singapore-based CoinSwitch’s previous fundraise was in April when it raised $25 million from Tiger Global at a valuation of $500 million. That was the New York-based investment firm’s maiden investment in a crypto platform in India.Crypto Tales by CoinSwitch Kuber, a new series where our host, Jatin Sapru will meet some of the experts, the gurus, the pioneers, of the Indian Cryptocurrency universe. In this episode, Jatin meets Rushindra Sinha, CEO, Global Esports, a techie, a gamer, one of the earliest cryptocurrency investors in the world, a crypto trader, crypto consultant and also a doctor. Download CoinSwitch Kuber now and join 10 million Indians on India's largest crypto-trading platform.A curated weekly summary of forward-focused crypto news that matters. This week, Bitcoin outperforms most large cap altcoins, Coinbase announces a bumper bond sale to raise new funds, and PayPal launches crypto services in the UK.

Performance across the digital asset markets was mixed in the last week, with gainers led by a bullish Bitcoin (BTC). The market’s largest and oldest asset was up ~2% to end the week. Ethereum (ETH) and Cardano (ADA), the second and third largest assets in the crypto markets, fell by ~4% and ~13% respectively.The industry received a strong tailwind after Coinbase, the Nasdaq listed crypto exchange, announced that it will seek to bolster its balance sheet with a US$1.5 billion sale. Coinbase says the raise will be used for general corporate purposes such as investments in product development and the future acquisitions of other companies and technology solutions. Excess demand pushed Coinbase to increase the size of the sale to US2$billion. According to The Economic Times, over $7 billion worth of orders were placed to compete for equal quantities of 7 and 10-year bonds.

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Demand for crypto trading solutions is also growing rapidly, outpacing the demand to trade legacy markets, according to mobile app data. Data from iOS and Android app-monitoring platform Apptopia reports that Coinbase Pro was the fastest-growing app in finance in the second week of September with a 319% increase in downloads. Voyager, an app that supports the trading of over 60 digital assets, saw a 234% surge in the same period. The mobile app for popular global exchange Binance was fourth on the list with a 120% increase in downloads.The growth of crypto apps outpaced the growth of personal finance apps like Albert, banking apps like Bank of America Prepaid Mobile, and stock trading apps like Etoro and Stash. It’s clear that the retail crypto market is alive and kicking.

A new funnel for retail crypto users has opened in the UK with PayPal completing the rollout of its crypto service offering in the country. An announcement from PayPal on Twitter read, “We are delighted to share that all eligible customers in the UK can now buy, hold and sell #Cryptocurrencies #Bitcoin, #Ethereum, #BitcoinCash & #Litecoin from their PayPal account. Look out for it in the PayPal app.”This will mark PayPal’s first crypto service offering outside of the United States. Jose Fernandez da Ponte, PayPal’s general manager for blockchain, crypto, and digital currencies, told CNBC in an interview last month that PayPal’s crypto service has been doing “really well in the USA” and PayPal expects similar results in the UK.The Crypto Fear and Greed index measures sentiment and emotions in crypto markets using data like price volatility, social media mentions, and momentum (moving averages). The Fear and Greed index is currently neutral. The crypto markets have had a volatile September with the price of BTC ranging from highs of ~52,600 on September 7th to lows of around ~44,200 on September 13th. Traders and investors feeling a ‘neutral’ sentiment suggests they are unsure of which direction markets will move next.Trading set-ups for the weekPro trader Josh Olszewicz explores trading options and signals for BTC and ETH - and lays out the trading setups he's watching for the upcoming week. Start your week off right with Josh's thoughts on trading strategies on a weekly basis.Crypto news for the week ahead

September 25th-26th - Cardano SummitCardano (ADA), the third-largest asset in crypto, will host its annual conference this week. The event will be held online and in-person. Leading Cardano community members and engineers will be present physically at London, Miami, Berlin, Cape Town, Wyoming (the location of IOHK's headquarters), and New York for live events as part of the summit. There has been some buzz in the last week about Hydra, Cardano’s recently announced layer 2 scaling solution. ADA is down ~12% in the last week.

September 24th - Binance officially delists COVEROn Friday crypto trading giant Binance will officially delist the COVER token of decentralized insurance protocol, Cover. Binance will end the BUSD/COVER & ETH/COVER markets, as well as suspending deposits and withdrawals of the token. The delisting is occurring because the Cover and Ruler insurance protocols which underpin the token are being shut down and the UI removed. COVER is up ~3% in the last week.

Top 10 Crypto SummaryBitcoin aside, performance in the digital asset markets was generally poor in the last week. Solana (SOL) was the biggest loser in the top 10, falling by almost 14%. Last week the Solana network experienced an outage for 16 hours due to high transaction loads. The blockchain appears to have suffered a coordinated denial of service attack. The network is back to running normally however the attack has shown that the network is not antifragile.

The price of Bitcoin (BTC) ends the week hovering around the US$47,000 price level. Glassnode reported last week that miners have gone into accumulation mode and are increasing their holdings of the asset instead of selling it. This indicates that miners, a key stakeholder in the bitcoin markets, are bullish about BTC’s future price prospects.In 2021, platform blockchains have captured the imagination of crypto investors. Retail investors, traders, and venture capitalists are throwing money at projects hoping to find the new Ethereum, Cardano, or Solana. Will Fantom be the next smart contract chain to achieve escape velocity?Fantom (FTM) is one of the leading candidates from the emerging platform blockchain pack to next attract mainstream investor interest. On January 1st, Fantom’s native token FTM was the 164th largest asset in crypto. It had a market cap of US$47 million and each token was priced at US$0.0182. Six months later, by early June, FTM was the 92nd largest asset in crypto with a market cap of ~US$869 million, with each token priced at US$0.3418. At the time of writing, FTM has climbed to be 53rd largest asset in crypto with a market cap of ~US$3.31 billion, with each token priced at ~US$1.31.Since the start of the year, the price of FTM has risen by ~7098%, while the market cap has risen by 6,942%. That represents face melting gains for a project that has established market relevance quickly in the last year and continues to grow.

A working productFantom has a working blockchain product that is live and in active use. DeFi Llama reports that the total value locked into the Fantom DeFi ecosystem is US$1.3 billion. This number is up ~108,000% in the last 5 months. The Fantom DeFi ecosystem is enjoying a period of Hockey Stick like growth with the real inflection point happening around mid-July of this year.

The most popular Dapp on Fantom is a Uniswap style AMM decentralized exchange called SpookySwap. It constitutes ~27% of Fantom’s DeFi TVL. Spookyswap also offers a bridging product that lets users move tokens over from chains such as Ethereum and the Binance Smart Chain.Popular platforms that were built on other protocols, Curve Finance and Sushiswap, are available on the Fantom network.

Daily active addresses on the network have been surging since June and have gone parabolic in August. There are presently just over 10,000 new Fantom unique addresses being added to the network every day.Daily transactions on the Fantom network have also been growing rapidly. The growth of transactions and active addresses is higher than the amount of TVL. This is potentially bullish which indicates that new users of the Fantom network are active rather than passive. This should translate to higher fees generated and faster token velocity.

Worldwide Search interest for the terms ‘Fantom crypto’ and ‘FTM coin’ have surged in the last fortnight to hit new all-time highs.Other social metrics also suggest that social sentiment for Fantom is strong. Data from Crypto data provider Santiment show that sentiment for Fantom on Twitter has been almost exclusively net positive since June of this year. Active Fantom social users peaked during May of this year, this surge was likely correlated with the bull run when the price of FTM hit a new all-time high of ~US$0.917.The price of FTM has since eclipsed these all-time highs hitting US$1.66 on September 10th. This more recent price pickup, however, has not been accompanied by a sharp rise in social activity. This suggests that other buyers outside of the normal retail crowd are pushing up the price of FTM this time around. Steady accumulation of FTM continues.Given the rise in onchain activity, it may be crypto natives and DeFi users driving this most recent price rise as opposed to speculators who are more likely to be exposed to Fantom through social networks. According to Santiment, Fantom makes about ~0.20% of crypto social mentions, while FTM makes up about ~0.14% of the crypto market capitalization. This is not a significant mismatch by crypto standards.

The technology backing FantomThe Fantom project began in 2018 and was founded by Korean developer Dr. Ahn Byung Ik. The management and development of the Fantom network is currently handled by the Fantom Foundation. The current CEO of the company is Sydney based Michael Kong.

Fantom is a programmable platform blockchain built to support Dapps. It was designed to be scalable and positions itself as a chain that can maintain fast, cheap transactions even when the network is busy. It uses a consensus algorithm called Lachesis.As well as being fast and cheap, Fantom is marketed as a more environmentally friendly alternative to Ethereum because it achieves consensus through proof-of-stake as opposed to proof-of-work, the consensus algorithm still used by Ethereum. PoS is much less processing power-intensive than proof-of-work and requires less energy to function.

Using the Fantom network will be intuitive for anyone who has interacted with the Ethereum blockchain before. Fantom’s mainnet deployment, Opera, has the exact same functionality as Ethereum because it supports the Solidity programming language and is integrated with the Ethereum Virtual Machine. Applications can be built to be completely interoperable with EVM chains, while still maintaining the transaction model of Fantom. The Fantom website has an excellent guide on how to use Fantom with Metamask.Opera, an EVM compatible mainnet, was launched in December 2019. Fantom is a third-generation blockchain (as are Cardano, Solana, and Polkadot). It seeks to challenge the incumbent centralized, legacy financial network by learning from and improving the architecture used by first and second-generation blockchains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster